Post Fabrication & Installation

Construction Site Protection and Maintenance of Architectural Glass (GANA TD 03-1003)
During glass manufacturing, fabrication and installation, products are carefully handled to prevent surface and edge damage. Materials are packaged to provide protection during shipment and delivery. Once finished materials are placed on a construction site, they become exposed to a variety of conditions and influences that can adversely affect product aesthetics and functionality. Irreparable glass damage can occur from improper storage and handling, exposure to chemicals and leaching agents, prolonged exposure to moisture, mechanical attack and breakage, damage related to adjacent construction activities and improper cleaning methods. This document discusses why steps must be taken to avoid permanent damage to glass.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Curtain Wall Manual (CWM)
The AAMA Curtain Wall Manual highlights the basic principles and essential requirements of a good curtain wall design.
Link to document.

Describing Architectural Glass Constructions (NGA with GANA FB15-07)
Architectural glass products used in commercial construction applications often incorporate multiple lites of glass with different colors, thicknesses, strength, coatings and other surface and edge treatments. The Glass Association of North America (GANA) recommends the terminology and practices for describing the construction of architectural glass products to be used in windows, doors, skylights, window walls and curtain walls contained within this document. This document was published in November 2007. This edition provides the most recent update and it was published in August 2016.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Design Considerations for Use of Sealants/Adhesives with Coated Glass (NGA with GANA FB41-14)
There is a multitude of glazing material types used inside and outside of modern architectural buildings today. One type that has seen its popularity grow steadily within the last few years is the coated glass family. Coated glass can be grouped into different chemistry formulations and manufacturing methods; serving either functional and/or aesthetic purposes and used both in interior and exterior applications. The following should be considered when selecting and specifying sealants and adhesives to be used with coated glass products This document was published in August 2014.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Effects of Moisture, Solvents and Other Substances on Laminated Glazing Edges (NGA with GANA FB48-15)
The objective of this document is to provide information relative to the edge effects on laminated glass due to moisture, solvents, standing water, caulks, sealants, tapes, gaskets, setting blocks and glass cleaning solutions on laminated glazing edges. Recommendations are provided to maximize durability, performance and aesthetics of the laminated glazing. This document was published in July 2015.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Emergency Egress Through Laminated Glazing Materials (GANA LD 02-0704)
Building codes often require, and/or modern architectural designs specify, glazing materials that provide enhanced performance levels of security and safety. These performance properties include: resistance to ballistics, blast, hurricane/cyclic wind pressures and physical attack. Glazing applications may also specify such properties as sound reduction, fade resistance, and solar and thermal control. Because laminated glazing materials are able to meet such requirements and design criteria, they are finding application in a broader range of installations than ever before. The use of laminated glazing in residential and commercial installations has led to inquiries by design professionals and specifiers regarding the reaction of public safety officials to these products. This document is intended to inform building owners, design professionals, and specifiers about emergency ingress and egress considerations when using these products.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Engineering Standards Manual (NGA with GANA, 2019)
This publication is an updated edition of the original manual developed by the Glass Association of North America (GANA) in 2008. NGA and GANA combined into one association in February 2018. It includes current technology and standards for heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass products. This manual is designed to assist manufacturers/fabricators and users of heat-treated glass, engineers, architects, architectural specifiers and consumers.
Link to print version.
Link to downloadable PDF.

General EPD Education (NGA with GANA FM06-20)
This document is intended for the architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) community involved in the selection, specification and review of lifecycle environmental impacts of building components. It has been observed in the marketplace that professionals are trying to compare Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) values, and the purpose of this document is to highlight challenges in comparison.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Glass and Glazing Estimating Essentials (NGA with GANA, 2018)
The Glass and Glazing Estimating Essentials bundle contains two online courses and the Glass and Glazing Estimating Essentials Manual. The Reading Plans and Blueprints online course is an introduction for professionals in the glazing industry on how to read and interpret plans and blueprints in order to identify what is needed for construction. The Introduction to Estimating online course introduces best practices in how to interpret plans for the purpose of estimating projects. The Glass and Glazing Estimating Essentials Manual is available via PDF within the online courses or can be ordered as a printed copy for an additional fee.
Link to downloadable PDF.
Link to online training course bundle.

Glass for Personal Protective Barriers (NGA with GANA FB65-20)
Many businesses are installing clear personal protective barriers to physically shield employees from each other and from consumers to reduce potential exposure to the coronavirus. In many applications, the barriers will become a permanent fixture; therefore, aesthetics and cleanability are important design considerations. Barriers can be constructed of plastic sheet or glass.Glass has several advantages in physical barrier applications and may be preferred over plastic, especially for permanent and public-facing barrier installations. Compared to plastic, glass is easy-to-clean, transparent and aesthetically-pleasing.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Glazing Manual (50th Anniversary Edition) (GANA)
The GANA Glazing Manual is recognized as the definitive source in the glass and glazing field. This manual includes complete information about primary and fabricated glass products, quality standards, design considerations, general and specific glazing guidelines and glazing in hazardous locations. Formerly published by the Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA), this manual is frequently referred to as the “industry bible.”
Link to print version.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Glossary of Terms for Color and Appearance (NGA with GANA FB17-08)
This document is a thorough representation of the terms associated with color and appearance in the application of decorative glass products. Definitions and examples are provided for over 35 terms.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Guidelines for Appearance of Insulating Glass Unit Edges in Commercial Applications (NGA with GANA FB27-11)
This document addresses issues related to the appearance of insulating glass unit (IGU) edges in both captured and silicone structural glazed (SSG) commercial glazing systems. Components of IGU edges are discussed, and acceptance criteria provided where appropriate. This GIB is intended to address both vision and spandrel IGUs. Viewing and acceptance criteria are the same for both vision and spandrel units. These guidelines assume IGUs are sized correctly for the opening dimension and glazed according to GANA glazing guidelines. The document was written to address two lite (double glazed) IGUs. However, much of the information pertains to IGUs with three or more lites (triple glazed, quad glazed, etc.) The document was originally published in October 2011. This current version was published in March 2015.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Guidelines for Capillary Tubes (Joint with GANA and IGMA TB 1601-95)
While the benefits of using capillary tubes are straightforward, there are numerous issues when considering their use including:
1) Magnitude of elevation change to require use
2) IGU pressurization due to temperature difference
3) Use with insulating gases
4) IGU sizes and aspect ratios
5) Glass thickness, type and coatings
6) Glazing space thickness
7) Short term (in transit) vs. long term (installed) elevation and/or temperature changes
8) Types of edge seal construction
9) Multiple-cavity IGUs (triples, quads, etc.)
10) Proper IGU design and fabrication for use of capillary tubes
Link to downloadable PDF page.

Guidelines for Measuring Color of Decorative Glazing Materials (NGA with GANA FB68-20)
Measuring color of decorative glazing in the field may be necessary from time to time in order to resolve perceived color match issues. The following color survey procedure provides the recommended steps to measure and compare units that are ready to be installed and already installed units to mock-up, attic stock or newly produced replacement units and each other.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Guidelines for Handling and Cleaning Decorative Glass (GANA DD 01-0608)
Decorative glass products have become important components of the architectural landscape. They contribute to the architecture and design requirements of interior and exterior applications for residential, commercial and industrial projects. In order to preserve the quality and integrity of decorative glass products and to ensure their long-term performance, fabricators, glazing contractors, related sub-contractors (e.g. millwork contractors) and building owners should follow appropriate procedures during handling, fabrication, installation, and cleaning. The guidelines within this document are intended to inform and assist those who fabricate, use and maintain decorative glass products.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Guidelines for IG Manufacturers; Studies of Sealant Compatibility (IGMA TB-2403-91)
These guidelines address the determination of the compatibility of glazing sealants and glazing materials with the IG unit edge seal for a particular building project specification and test methods used.
Link to documents page.

Installation Guidelines for Unit Skylights (AAMA 1607)
This document has been developed for the purpose of providing a guideline to installing preassembled unit skylights onto a roof. The intent of this standard is to educate by providing clear illustrations and concise commentary on the principles involved to ensure good installation practice.
Link to document.

Installation of Aluminum Curtain Walls (AAMA CWG-1)
This is an in-depth discussion of curtain wall installation procedures including architects’ concerns and responsibilities. Contractors’ responsibilities are also addressed. Manual reviews details and steps to take for proper installation to assure good curtain wall performance.
Link to document.

Installation Techniques Designed to Prolong the Life of Flat Glass Mirrors (GANA MD 03-0709)
The reflective surface of a mirror is a thin film of pure metallic silver. Although well protected by paint, the silver film remains vulnerable to corrosion if exposed to chemicals or excessive moisture. This document provides some important installation recommendations. Strict adherence to these dos and don’ts will help protect the silver from corrosion and prolong the life of the mirror.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Iridescence Patterns in Heat-Treated Architectural Glass (NGA with GANA FB20-08)
Glass used in architecture today commonly includes clear and tinted glass substrates, low-emissivity and solar-control coatings, decorative ceramic-frit patterns and safety glazing considerations that require glass to be heat-treated. Heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass is designed to meet increased thermal and mechanical stresses, or other specified physical criteria. As a result of the heat-treating fabrication process, quench patterns/marks or what is often referred to as a “strain pattern,” may become visible in heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass under certain natural or polarized lighting conditions. This document discusses these patterns. This document was originally published in January 2008, and was republished in 2017.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Key Elements of Fenestration System Shop Drawings (NGA with GANA IN03-12)
Shop drawings are required by subcontractors, whether it is for glazing, metal panels, masonry, precast concrete, or any substrate that makes up the exterior facade of a building. The intent of this document is to focus on the key elements of shop drawings designed for detailing glass and metal curtain wall, window, skylight, and storefront installations. This bulletin presents a general checklist of items that should be included in shop drawings for fenestration systems and is presented in an “Order of Assembly” format for the documents. This document was published in July 2012.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Laminated Glazing Reference Manual (NGA with GANA, 2019)
This publication is an updated edition of the original manual developed by the Glass Association of North American (GANA) in 2009. NGA and GANA combined into one association in February 2018. It presents useful information, technical and performance data and the installation guidelines for laminated glass products. The 2019 edition includes the latest information on laminating interlayers, as well as in-depth discussions of the applications of laminated architectural glass including: safety, solar control, ultraviolet radiation, sound control, security, sloped glazing & skylights, wind storms & hurricane resistance, and earthquake resistance. Updates on laminated glass strength, cutting, handling and installation are highlighted. This edition also features the up-to-date listing of standards applicable to laminated glass.
Link to print version.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Marking and Labeling of Architectural Laminated Glass (GANA LD 05-1006)
Modern architectural designs are requiring the installation of glazing materials that are capable of performing in multi-peril situations. These applications typically require levels of protection well beyond those of basic safety glazing. As such there has been unprecedented advancement in the types, configurations and complexities of glazing materials currently utilized in architectural applications. Because of the tremendous increase in the recognized performance of glass and other glazing, the concern over properly identified components of a fenestration assembly has also increased. Currently, there are several industry guidelines that assist the frame manufacturer in the proper labeling of framing systems, but very little guidance is available for the glazing that is placed inside the frame, referenced as the “infill”. The purpose of this informational bulletin is to provide guidance and hopefully some clarity to the various permanent marks or manufacturers designations currently being applied and/or required for the glazing infill of a fenestration assembly.
Link to downloadable PDF.

North American Glazing Guidelines for Sealed Insulating Glass Units for Commercial and Residential Use (IGMA TM-3000-90(04))
These advisory guidelines address the importance of good glazing practices and are intended for use by those who design, specify, manufacturer and install insulating glass units. These guidelines address glass types, framing, glazing clearances, setting blocks, spacer shims, glazing materials, glazing systems, receiving, storage & handling, glass protection & cleaning for both commercial and residential applications.
Link to documents page.

Overview of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Glass and Glazing Systems (NGA with GANA IN05-17)
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an intelligent, model-based process that starts in the early stages of planning and design. It is used through construction, and can also be used throughout the operational management stages. BIM projects can display the proper graphics at different scales, represent accurate geometry, and can be rich with manufacturer product data. This bulletin was developed by the GANA Building Envelope Contractors (BEC) Division, the membership and the GANA Board of Directors. This is the original version of the document as approved and published in May 2017.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Project Manager’s Reference Manual (NGA with GANA, 2018)
This publication is an updated edition of the original manual developed by the Glass Association of North America (GANA) in 2005. NGA and GANA combined into one association in February 2018. It serves as a reference for project managers within the glass and glazing industry who have a minimum of one year’s experience. It covers everything from considerations in how to set up a project through the details of a successful project closeout. It is not meant to provide an exhaustive list, but to serve as a starting point for project manager training. It is the responsibility of the users of this manual to ensure that project managers comply with all relevant laws, rules, regulations, standards and other requirements, particularly contract obligations.
Link to print version.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Proper Procedures for Receiving, Storage and Transportation of Flat Glass Mirrors (NGA with GANA FB30-11)
The purpose of this publication is to provide the latest available information to glass dealers, distributors and installers on the procedures recommended by the Mirror Division of the Glass Association of North America (GANA) for the proper receiving, storage and transportation of high quality flat glass mirror products with the objective of helping preserve the integrity and prolonging the life of mirrors. Proper storage, handling, fabrication and good installation practices go a long way in reducing potential failures or damage to mirror quality. The Technical Services Division of the National Glass Association (NGA) has produced this Glass Technical Paper solely for informational purposes. This Paper was developed by dedicated member volunteers and subject matter experts. This document was originally published in May 2011 and updated in July 2019.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Recommended Applications for Heat-Treated Architectural Glass (NGA with GANA FB45-14)
The glass industry has been heat treating architectural glass to increase its strength since about 1930. The process of heat- treating glass involves uniformly heating glass close to its softening temperature and then rapidly, and uniformly, cooling it. This process results in the development of surface compressive stresses, thus increasing the strength of the glass. Heat-treated glass is used in many of today’s architectural glazing applications where increased strength to resist glass breakage is desired. Vision and spandrel areas of buildings as well as building entrances, glass railings and balustrades, and other applications where public safety is a priority, are common examples. This document was published in January 2014 and updated in May 2019.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Recyclability of Architectural Glass (NGA with GANA FB40-14)
The interest in recycling architectural glass products is growing; however, information on companies offering recycling services is fragmented and difficult to find. The purpose of this bulletin is to identify the different products that can be recycled and those that cannot. Another objective is to clarify any misconceptions regarding glass recycling and identify sources for recycling architectural glass. Finally, examples of a variety of products that can be created from the use of recycled glass are provided. This document was published in January 2014.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Screening Out UV Radiation with Laminated Glass (NGA with GANA FB34-12)
Furniture, fabrics, and other interior fixtures, as well as valuable paintings and papers, will fade over time. The main contributors to fading are ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible light, absorbed heat and moisture. Most laminated glass interlayers are formulated to screen out UV radiation below 380 nanometers (nm). The UV filtering characteristics in the laminate interlayer enable laminated glass to reduce the rate of fading and deterioration of these materials. This document was first published in February 2012, and updated in 2018.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Sealant Manual (GANA, 2008)
The new GANA Sealant Manual provides guidelines for the selection and application of sealants used in exterior and interior glass and glazing installations. Manual sections include causes of sealant failures, structural glazing and glazing accessories.
Link to print version.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Security Glazing (NGA with GANA FB43-14)
The objective of this document is to provide information on security glazing options for windows and doors installed in schools. Before the glazing is specified, it is important to determine the assets, threat/hazard, vulnerability, and risk associated with each school. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has updated its publication: “Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings” (December 2012) with an appendix that provides a checklist for use in these assessments.This document was published in January 2014.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Skylights and Sloped Glazing Are Not Walking Surfaces (GANA LD 04-0306)
The use of skylights and sloped glazing systems continues to grow in popularity as architects and building owners use these fenestration systems to bring natural daylight further into homes, schools, medical facilities, commercial offices and retail stores. In order to ensure human safety and long-term performance of skylights and sloped glazing systems, construction workers, maintenance professionals and others must be aware that the systems typically are not designed or intended to be used as walking surfaces. This document discusses safety concerns with walking on these types of surfaces.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Standard Practice for Installation of Windows with a Mounting Flange in Stud Frame Construction (AAMA 2400)
This practice provides guidance for the proper installation of windows with mounting flanges or nail fins into buildings with stud frame construction. It includes details of anchorage, flashing and sealing window installations to guide the user. It also includes information on preparing the building opening for window installation.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for Installation of Windows with an Exterior Flush Fin Over an Existing Window Frame (AAMA 2410)
This practice covers installation of retrofit windows in residential buildings of no more than four stories in height, from pre-installation procedures through post-installation procedures. It provides minimum requirements and covers typical installations and generic details.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows and Doors in Commercial Buildings (AAMA IPCB)
This standard practice addresses the installation of windows and exterior glass doors (including Hinged and Sliding Glass Doors) which are installed in commercial buildings. It includes information pertaining to both new construction and replacement projects.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows with Flanges or Mounting Fins in Wood Frame Construction (FMA/AAMA 100)
This standard practice covers the installation of windows in new construction utilizing a membrane/drainage system of no more than 3 stories in height and the installation process for windows from pre- to post-installation. This standard practice also provides minimum requirements for window installation based on current best practices. This practice applies to windows which employ a mounting flange or fin that is attached and sealed to the window perimeter frame and is designed as an installation fastening appendage.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows with Frontal Flanges for Surface Barrier Masonry Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Conditions (FMA/AAMA 200)
This standard practice covers the installation of frontal-flanged windows into buildings with surface barrier wall construction (masonry/concrete) of no more than three stories in height and applies to frontal flanged windows which employ an integral or applied flange that is attached and sealed to the window perimeter frame and is designed as an appendage that will cover a previously-installed buck and/or integrate with a pre-cast sill. This standard practice covers the installation process for windows from pre- to post-installation; it does not include fabrication techniques that would be required to join individual windows to each other, either horizontally or vertically.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for the Installation of Exterior Doors in Wood Frame Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Exposure (FMA/AAMA 300)
This standard practice covers the installation of exterior doors in new construction residential and light commercial buildings of not more than three stories above grade in height, utilizing a membrane/drainage system. This practice applies to exterior doors which employ a mounting flange, exterior casing/brick mold, or box frame/non-flanged.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for the Installation of Exterior Doors in Surface Barrier Masonry Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Exposure (FMA/AAMA 400)
This standard practice covers the installation of exterior doors in new construction residential and light commercial buildings of not more than three stories above grade in height, with surface barrier wall construction (masonry/concrete). It is expected that all referenced components shall meet code requirements in force at the time of the installation.
Link to document.

Standard Practice for the Installation of Mounting Flange Windows into Walls Utilizing Foam Plastic Insulating Sheathing (FPIS) with a Separate Water-Resistive Barrier (WRB) (FMA/AAMA/WDMA 500)
This standard practice encompasses procedures for the installation of windows into walls utilizing foam plastic insulating sheathing (FPIS) with a separate water resistive barrier (WRB); and addresses installations for residential and light commercial buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane in height.
Link to document.

Suggested Procedures for Dealing with Broken Glass (GANA 04-0906)
All types of architectural glass can be hazardous when broken. Glass can break after installation due to accidental impact, severe weather events, vandalism or improper glazing conditions as well as for other reasons. Regardless of the type of glass, broken glass can pose a risk of injury and property damage. This document outlines suggested procedures for dealing with broken glass.
Link to downloadable PDF.

The Top 10 Items Commonly Missing from Fenestration System Shop Drawings (NGA with GANA IN01-06, 2020)
Shop drawings, for glass and aluminum windows, curtain walls and skylights, must document and detail all requirements of design parameters, material ordering, fabrication and erection. Failure to properly document these requirements can result in numerous errors and project delays. In order to provide a reminder of key elements of successful shop drawings, members of the GANA Building Envelope Contractors (BEC) Division developed this list of the Top Ten items commonly missing from fenestration systems shop drawings.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Understanding Reflective Distortion in Mirror Installations (NGA with GANA FB58-18)
Mirrors are an important component to the architectural design of interior and exterior applications for residential, commercial, and industrial settings. Through its reflective qualities, a well-placed mirror can bring light into the living space as well as provide a feeling of enlarging the space around you. However, reflective images from the mirror may exhibit slight distortion, which is a function of the glass used to fabricate the mirror or the result of the mirror installation. This Glass Information Bulletin was written to provide you with information and expectations of allowable reflective distortion in annealed flat glass mirrors. This document was first published in 2018.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Unsupported Edge Conditions of Insulating Glass Units (Joint with IGMA and NGA with GANA TB1800-18)
The document addresses concerns regarding the structural and durability performance of unsupported insulating glass unit edges subject to uniform load including glass stresses, practical glass deflections, sealant strength capabilities, spacer stress and deformation limits, load durations, dead load support and setting block location and other variables that influence the unsupported edge condition for insulating glass units.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Use of Laminated Glass in Glass Railing Systems (NGA with GANA FB33-11)
Glass railing systems are used in a variety of residential and commercial settings for safety and the beauty glass adds to a structure. Laminated glass offers a variety of design options: the interlayer can be clear, tinted, or custom printed. The glass can be flat or curved, fully supported or minimally supported with bolts or clamps. Laminated glass offers a significant benefit over monolithic glass used in railings; namely, if breakage occurs, glass particles will adhere to the laminate interlayer increasing the likelihood of glass retention in the system. This bulletin was developed by the GANA Laminating Division and by the membership and the GANA Board of Directors. The original version of the document as approved and published in March 2011. This version was re-published in May 2013 and April 2017.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Voluntary Guidelines for the Identification of Visual Obstructions in the Airspace of Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-3100-09)
These advisory guidelines may assist in the determination of unintended visual obstructions in the insulating glass unit airspace.
Link to documents page.

Voluntary Test Methods for Chemical Effects of Glazing Compounds on Elastomeric Edge Seals (IGMA TR-1000-75(91))
This test method covers the procedure for an oven-type test of sample 6” X 6” insulating glass units exposed to glazing compounds or other materials which could contact units on the unbranded elastomeric edge seal.
Link to documents page.

Weatherability & Durability of Decorative Glass (NGA with GANA FB46-15)
Decorative glass products are being integrated into an increasing number of new interior and exterior applications. Assessing the ability of decorative glass products to sustain conditions prevailing in a given interior or exterior environment becomes an important question. The objective of this glass information bulletin is to offer guidance to the industry with respect to the weatherability and durability properties of decorative glass.
Link to downloadable PDF.

Window Glazing for Durability (Residential) (IGMA)
This CD video addresses window glazing for residential applications. (Link coming soon.)