Design & Fabrication

Approximate Weight of Architectural Flat Glass (GANA FGMD 01-0408)
Design professionals, wall system manufacturers, and construction managers often need the weight of materials for engineering and construction site considerations. The table within this document gives approximate weights of architectural flat glass by thickness designations as published by North American manufacturers.
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Bid Considerations for Contract Glazing Proposals (GANA BECD 02-010)
Today’s business climate requires glazing subcontractors to take steps to reduce their agreements to writing, clarify those agreements and limit their exposure. The purpose of this document is to list optional inclusions, exclusions and qualifications for glazing subcontractors to consider adopting. This is not a comprehensive list; it is a tool to assist subcontractors in evaluating their bid proposals.
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Blast Mitigating Glazing (GANA PGC 02-0509)
Blast mitigating glazing can substantially reduce injury from flying glass resulting from direct blast shock waves (over-pressures). When properly designed, framed, and anchored, blast resistant laminates are capable of maintaining the integrity of the building envelope following an explosion and reducing interior damage. Although there are other mechanisms of reducing the number of glass shards that enter a facility this document deals with factory fabricated glazing with at least two pieces of glass or plastic glazing bonded together with a high performance polymer interlayer.
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Blueprint Reading & Labor Estimating Course (GANA)
This correspondence course is designed for beginning estimators in the contract glazing business. It is intended to provide the beginner with many of the basic facts about the materials used as well as a basic systematic approach to estimating metal, glass and labor. The Blueprint Reading and Labor Estimating Course is now available in both hard copy and CD-ROM format.
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Bullet Resistant Glazing (GANA PGC 01-0707)
Bullet resistant glazing provides an improved safety barrier against ballistic attack. Bullet resistant glazing materials include all-glass laminates, glass-clad polycarbonate laminates, and other laminated or monolithic plastics. Typical applications include banks, currency exchanges, police stations, embassies, military installations, prisons, detention centers, government offices, and schools. This document discusses various aspects and considerations with bullet resistant glazing.
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Daylighting Design Guidelines for Roof Glazing in Atrium Spaces (AAMA DDGA)
These design guidelines focus on large roof areas or atriums (30 to 90% of the roof area) for net annual energy and peak demand as the key measures of performance. It outlines a procedure for making early schematic design decisions regarding the use of relatively large areas of horizontal roof glazing in the prototype atrium configuration. Energy balance techniques are also described
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Design Considerations for Laminated Glazing Applications (GANA LD 01-1003)
Modern architectural designs often require glazing materials that provide enhanced levels of security and safety performance properties. These properties include: resistance to ballistics, blast, hurricane/cyclic wind pressures and physical attack. Applications may also require desirable properties such as sound reduction, fade resistance, and solar & thermal control. Laminated glazing materials consist of multiple plies of glass, interlayers, resins and/or plastic glazing materials (such as polycarbonate sheet or acrylic), which are often complex in nature. They are designed to provide specified levels of performance. Design professionals and building owners should be aware of the considerations contained within this document when selecting and specifying laminated glazing constructions.
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Emergency Egress Through Laminated Glazing Materials (GANA LD 02-0704)
Building codes often require, and/or modern architectural designs specify, glazing materials that provide enhanced performance levels of security and safety. These performance properties include: resistance to ballistics, blast, hurricane/cyclic wind pressures and physical attack. Glazing applications may also specify such properties as sound reduction, fade resistance, and solar and thermal control. Because laminated glazing materials are able to meet such requirements and design criteria, they are finding application in a broader range of installations than ever before. The use of laminated glazing in residential and commercial installations has led to inquiries by design professionals and specifiers regarding the reaction of public safety officials to these products. This document is intended to inform building owners, design professionals, and specifiers about emergency ingress and egress considerations when using these products.
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Engineering Standards Manual (2008 Edition) (GANA)
The Glass Association of North America (GANA) Tempering Division Engineering Standards Manual includes current technology and standards for heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass products. This manual is designed to assist manufacturers/fabricators and users of heat-treated glass, engineers, architects, architectural specifiers and consumers.. The documents in the manual have been reviewed and updated by section task groups, the Standards and Engineering Committee and members of the GANA Tempering Division.
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Fully Tempered Heavy Glass Door and Entrance Systems Design Guide (1999 Edition) (GANA)
This first edition provides authoritative technical information to designers and offers suggestions for proper applications of heavy tempered glass used in doors and entrances. The aim of this guide is to promote good design practices and adherence to appropriate structural standards in fully tempered heavy glass storefronts and entrance design. Good design and adherence to standards serve as a benefit to the architect, glass fabricator, installing contractor, and most importantly, to the end user. The contents of this manual are for the design professional’s use in review and final approval. Note: This document is available on CD only.
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Glass and Glazing (AAMA GAG-1)
This guide is intended to better acquaint those in the construction industry with glass manufacturing processes, glass types and strengths, wind load resistance, breakage behavior and other mechanical and structural issues.
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Glass Design for Sloped Glazing (AAMA GDSG-1)
Outlines design considerations necessary for choosing the proper glass for non-residential skylight and sloped glazing applications and describes the minimum requirements for sloped glazing as specified in the major building codes.
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Glass Floors and Stairs (GANA LD 06-1107)
Glass floors and stair treads are found in both residential and commercial settings, and are growing in popularity because of their aesthetic appeal as well as for the daylighting benefits they bring to a space. While there are manufacturers that provide engineered and tested flooring systems, most glass floor and stair tread projects require the input of a structural engineer to provide load calculations and an experienced installer to provide glazing details. Because pedestrian safety is a critical objective, the glazing in-fill must provide an acceptable level of slip resistance. If there is a possibility for inappropriate lines of sight, the glass will require greater opacity or translucency to address a concern for modesty. This document discusses several considerations for using glass in flooring and stair applications.
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Glazing Manual (50th Anniversary Edition) (GANA)
The GANA Glazing Manual is recognized as the definitive source in the glass and glazing field. This manual includes complete information about primary and fabricated glass products, quality standards, design considerations, general and specific glazing guidelines and glazing in hazardous locations. Formerly published by the Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA), this manual is frequently referred to as the “industry bible.”
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Guidelines for Commercial Insulating Glass Dimensional Tolerances (IGMA TR-1200-83(07))
These guidelines should assist in achieving successful performance of organically-sealed insulating glass units and are not intended to limit the materials of construction, design, shape, size or other considerations of usage or exclude other possible dimensional tolerances depending upon specific circumstances.
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Guidelines for Handling and Cleaning Decorative Glass (GANA DD 01-0608)
Decorative glass products have become important components of the architectural landscape. They contribute to the architecture and design requirements of interior and exterior applications for residential, commercial and industrial projects. In order to preserve the quality and integrity of decorative glass products and to ensure their long-term performance, fabricators, glazing contractors, related sub-contractors (e.g. millwork contractors) and building owners should follow appropriate procedures during handling, fabrication, installation, and cleaning. The guidelines within this document are intended to inform and assist those who fabricate, use and maintain decorative glass products.
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Guidelines for IG Manufacturers; Studies of Sealant Compatibility (IGMA TB-2403-91)
These guidelines address the determination of the compatibility of glazing sealants and glazing materials with the IG unit edge seal for a particular building project specification and test methods used.
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Guidelines for Sloped Glazing (IGMA TB-3001-01)
Current sloped glazing design practices require careful consideration of insulating glass unit construction to ensure long-term performance. These guidelines address types of loading, code requirements, glass design, insulating glass sealant design and glazing system design.
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Guidelines for the Testing of Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate (MVTR) and the Presentation of the Results (IGMA TB-2701-95)
This bulletin provides standardized test method, sample configuration and units for reporting purposes.
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Guidelines for Use of Capillary/Breather Tubes (IGMA TB-1601-95(07))
These guidelines discusses various attributes of capillary and breather tubes including advantages and disadvantages, workmanship and manufacturing considerations, storage and handling and glazing.
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How Laminated Glass Is Made with PVB DVD (GANA)
This five minute video leads the viewer through the creation of laminated glass with PVB. (Link coming soon.)

How Mirrors Are Made DVD (GANA)
This six minute video leads the viewer through the creation of float glass. (Link coming soon.)

Hurricane Product Substitution (GANA LD 07-0809
Thousands of impact resistant windows, doors, and skylights have been tested and certified since Hurricane Andrew ravaged South Florida in 1992, causing billions in property damage. As a consequence of the damage inflicted by Hurricane Andrew, more stringent standards for window systems were adopted. The requirements put into place the following year called for testing of window and door systems and changes to any component–including framing materials, glazing, sealants, weather stripping, hardware and anchors typically necessitated retesting and recertification. This document discusses the many considerations for hurricane product substitution.
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Insulating Glass Manufacturing Guidelines: Important Considerations (IGMA TB-1400-91)
These guidelines provide a checklist to be considered for selection and compatibility of glass, desiccant, framework, sealant(s), gas filling, quality control, packaging & shipping of finished products, capillary / breather tubes and glazing.
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Insulating Glass Manufacturing Quality Procedures (IGMA TM-4000-02)
This manual provides a framework for an insulating glass manufacturer to use as the basis for a specific program geared to the unique requirements of each facility. The manual provides an outline and examples for in-plant quality control and is directed toward those areas in the manufacturing area to be measured and controlled.
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Laminated Glazing Reference Manual (2009 Edition) (GANA)
The GANA Laminated Glazing Reference Manual presents useful information, technical and performance data and the installation guidelines for laminated glass products. The 2009 edition includes the latest information on laminating interlayers, as well as in-depth discussions of the applications of laminated architectural glass including: safety, solar control, ultraviolet radiation, sound control, security, sloped glazing & skylights, wind storms & hurricane resistance, and earthquake resistance. Updates on laminated glass strength, cutting, handling and installation are highlighted. This edition also features the up-to-date listing of standards applying to laminated glass.
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Marking and Labeling of Architectural Laminated Glass (GANA LD 05-1006)
Modern architectural designs are requiring the installation of glazing materials that are capable of performing in multi-peril situations. These applications typically require levels of protection well beyond those of basic safety glazing. As such there has been unprecedented advancement in the types, configurations and complexities of glazing materials currently utilized in architectural applications. Because of the tremendous increase in the recognized performance of glass and other glazing, the concern over properly identified components of a fenestration assembly has also increased. Currently, there are several industry guidelines that assist the frame manufacturer in the proper labeling of framing systems, but very little guidance is available for the glazing that is placed inside the frame, referenced as the “infill”. The purpose of this informational bulletin is to provide guidance and hopefully some clarity to the various permanent marks or manufacturers designations currently being applied and/or required for the glazing infill of a fenestration assembly.
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Mirrors: Handle with Extreme Care (GANA)
The purpose of this publication is to provide the latest available information to glass dealers, distributors and installers on the procedures recommended by the Mirror Division of GANA for the proper storage, handling, fabrication, shipping, installation, and cleaning of high quality mirror products.
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North American Glazing Guidelines for Sealed Insulating Glass Units for Commercial and Residential Use (IGMA TM-3000-90(04))
These advisory guidelines address the importance of good glazing practices and are intended for use by those who design, specify, manufacturer and install insulating glass units. These guidelines address glass types, framing, glazing clearances, setting blocks, spacer shims, glazing materials, glazing systems, receiving, storage & handling, glass protection & cleaning for both commercial and residential applications.
Link to documents page.

Performance Criteria for Glazing Subjected to Seismic Events (GANA PGC 03-0809)
Shaking and twisting buildings, uplifting of the earth, people screaming, running and trying to avoid falling debris. This can be a typical scene during a damaging earthquake. Significant research has been done on the causes of earthquakes; less work has been done on how to keep buildings intact and functioning during these events. Engineers and architects must follow code requirements for the structural performance of buildings in seismic zones. This glass information bulletin focuses on the use of glass and glazing as non-structural components installed in buildings in seismic-prone areas.
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Point Supported Glass (GANA LD 03-0505)
Architectural glass that is monolithic, laminated, or insulating has traditionally been supported by capturing the edges of the glass. As architects have expressed their desire to make the walls of the buildings even more transparent, engineers have developed methods of reducing the size of the supporting structures. In recent years, especially in Europe, it has been increasingly popular to attach the glass to the structure using bolted fittings directly connected through holes in the glass. These fittings allow improved transparency and offer additional architectural opportunities in the detailing of the bolted connections. This document discusses this type of glass application.
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Preventing Insulating Glass Failures (IGMA TM-4100-03)
This manual provides insulating glass manufacturers with best practice recommendations and guidelines to use for testing, fabrication, packaging, shipment and glazing of insulating glass units to assist in achieving long term performance and to minimize seal failure using existing technology for edge seal design along with selection of sealants, desiccants, spacers, gases, glass and other components used for the manufacture of insulating glass.
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Project Managers Reference Manual (2005 Edition) (GANA)
The GANA Project Managers Reference Manual provides procedural guide references that begin with the estimating and contract processes, the establishment of the project team, and continue through installation and project close-out. The GANA Building Envelope Contractors Division developed this manual based on many years’ experience in the industry. Emphasis is placed on finishing a quality project that adheres to industry standards. The 2005 edition is the inaugural version of this manual. Click here to see the table of contents for this manual.
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Proper Procedures for Fabrication of Flat Glass Mirrors (GANA MD 02-0209
Silvered flat glass mirror products can be fabricated to provide additional aesthetic appeal such as beveled edges and surface accents. As additional fabrication features are applied, is it critical to ensure proper fabrication conditions and techniques are utilized in order to protect and maintain the integrity of the mirror backing and edges and to reduce the chances of black edge developing. When fabricating silvered flat glass mirror products, the members of the Mirror Division of the Glass Association of North American (GANA) recommend consideration of the guidelines provided in this document.
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Quench Patterns in Heat-Treated Architectural Glass (GANA TD 05-0108)
Glass used in architecture today commonly includes clear and tinted glass substrates, low-emissivity and solar-control coatings, decorative ceramic-frit patterns and safety glazing considerations that require glass to be heat-treated. Heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass is designed to meet increased thermal and mechanical stresses, or other specified physical criteria. As a result of the heat-treating fabrication process, quench patterns/marks or what is often referred to as a “strain pattern,” may become visible in heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass under certain natural or polarized lighting conditions. This document discusses these patterns.
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Recommended Voluntary In-Plant Test Methods and Performance Criteria of Desiccants for Sealed Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-2100-78(81))
These advisory guidelines address the importance of good glazing practices and are intended for use by those who design, specify, manufacturer and install insulating glass units. These guidelines address glass types, framing, glazing clearances, setting blocks, spacer shims, glazing materials, glazing systems, receiving, storage & handling, glass protection & cleaning for both commercial and residential applications.
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Sealant Manual (2008 Edition) (GANA)
The new GANA Sealant Manual provides guidelines for the selection and application of sealants used in exterior and interior glass and glazing installations. Manual sections include causes of sealant failures, structural glazing and glazing accessories.
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Sealant Manufacturers Minimum Sealant Dimensions and Placement Survey (IGMA TB-1201-89(05))
This technical bulletin includes a chart of dual seal, hot melt extruded, single seal and Intercept™ spacers for silicone, hot melt, polysulfide, polyurethane and curing hot melt. This document includes depth of primary & secondary sealant, beneath spacer, total siteline, shoulder, thickness and thickness before press.
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Skylights and Sloped Glazing Are Not Walking Surfaces (GANA LD 04-0306)
The use of skylights and sloped glazing systems continues to grow in popularity as architects and building owners use these fenestration systems to bring natural daylight further into homes, schools, medical facilities, commercial offices and retail stores. In order to ensure human safety and long-term performance of skylights and sloped glazing systems, construction workers, maintenance professionals and others must be aware that the systems typically are not designed or intended to be used as walking surfaces. This document discusses safety concerns with walking on these types of surfaces.
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Structural Properties of Glass (AAMA CW-12)
This publication offers current technical information on the structural properties of glass and provides guidance on the selection and use of architectural glass.
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Structural Sealant Glazing Systems (AAMA CW-13)
This is a design guide for the three basic structural silicone sealant glazing systems: 1) all glass, 2) strip window and 3) total wall. It provides information on the glass, metal framing members and silicone sealant.
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Test Methods of Insulating Glass Sealants (IGMA TM-2400-76(90))
This manual covers types of sealants, application test methods for sealant type, tables of test conditions to standardize temperature, mixing and volume conditions and specific tests.
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The Float Glass Manufacturing Process DVD (GANA)

This four minute video leads the viewer through the creation of float glass. (Link coming soon.)

The Importance of Fabrication Prior to Heat-Treatment (GANA TD 04-1207)
Glass applications frequently require a variety of glass edge and/or surface fabrication. Some common fabrication processes include edge seaming, grinding, and polishing; hole drilling and notch cutting; and surface grooving, sand-blasting, and etching. GANA recommends against glass fabrication after heat treatment because it may weaken the glass and/or cause it to break. This document discusses why.
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The Top 10 Items Commonly Missing from Fenestration System Shop Drawings (GANA BECD 01-0906
Shop drawings, for glass and aluminum windows, curtain walls and skylights, must document and detail all requirements of design parameters, material ordering, fabrication and erection. Failure to properly document these requirements can result in numerous errors and project delays. In order to provide a reminder of key elements of successful shop drawings, members of the GANA Building Envelope Contractors (BEC) Division developed this list of the Top Ten items commonly missing from fenestration systems shop drawings.
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Voluntary Guidelines for the Identification of Visual Obstructions in the Airspace of Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-3100-09)
These advisory guidelines may assist in the determination of unintended visual obstructions in the insulating glass unit airspace.
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Voluntary Test Methods & Voluntary performance Quality Assurance Criteria for Spacers for Sealed Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-2000-76(82))
This manual includes information of test specimens, recommended voluntary test and performance quality assurance criteria for hollow shaped spacers to accept edge sealant to minimize air leakage between the spacer and the glass.
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Voluntary Test Methods & Voluntary Performance Quality Assurance Criteria for Two Component Polysulfide Sealants Used in Manufacturing Sealed Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-2301-85)
This manual includes information of test specimens, recommended voluntary test and performance quality assurance criteria with typical values based on laboratory test results, and various test methods.
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Voluntary Test Methods for Chemical Effects of Glazing Compounds on Elastomeric Edge Seals (IGMA TR-1000-75(91))
This test method covers the procedure for an oven-type test of sample 6” X 6” insulating glass units exposed to glazing compounds or other materials which could contact units on the unbranded elastomeric edge seal.
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Weight of Laminated Architectural Glass (GANA LD 08-0909)
Design professionals, wall system manufacturers, and construction managers often need the weight of materials for engineering and construction site considerations. The tables contained in this document provide approximate weights of interlayer used in laminated architectural flat glass by North American manufacturers.
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White Paper on the Relevance of Decorative Glass Products to the U. S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System™ (GANA)

The intent of this White Paper is to address areas of the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED®) Rating System that are relevant to the use of Decorative Glass. This document describes the ways in which decorative glass products are consistent with the intent of the LEED® Rating System. Although individual building products do not in themselves constitute conformance to the LEED® criteria, depending on the amount and type of glass used in a project, this versatile material has great potential to help achieve LEED® credits. The information contained in this paper has been developed using general or typical information on various decorative glass products. More specific information and performance data can be obtained through individual manufacturers that produce decorative glass products.
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Window Glazing for Durability (Residential) (IGMA)
This CD video addresses window glazing for residential applications.
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