Codes & Standards

ASTM Glass and Glazing Standards for the Building Industry
For the first time, ASTM International has an in depth resource that encompasses the most widely used and referenced ASTM Standards developed for the fenestration industry. This compilation was developed by ASTM Committee C14 and the Glass Association of North America (GANA) as a way for architects, engineers, specifiers, manufacturers and everyone in the building envelope industry to have one resource that offers the industry’s standard test methods, guides, practices and specifications which govern the glass and glazing industry.
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Blast Mitigating Glazing (GANA PGC 02-0509)
Blast mitigating glazing can substantially reduce injury from flying glass resulting from direct blast shock waves (over-pressures). When properly designed, framed, and anchored, blast resistant laminates are capable of maintaining the integrity of the building envelope following an explosion and reducing interior damage. Although there are other mechanisms of reducing the number of glass shards that enter a facility this document deals with factory fabricated glazing with at least two pieces of glass or plastic glazing bonded together with a high performance polymer interlayer.
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Bullet Resistant Glazing (GANA PGC 01-0707)
Bullet resistant glazing provides an improved safety barrier against ballistic attack. Bullet resistant glazing materials include all-glass laminates, glass-clad polycarbonate laminates, and other laminated or monolithic plastics. Typical applications include banks, currency exchanges, police stations, embassies, military installations, prisons, detention centers, government offices, and schools. This document discusses various aspects and considerations with bullet resistant glazing.
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Differences Between Safety Glazing Standards (GANA 03-0609)
This document contrasts the more significant differences between the following two standards: CPSC Part 1201 Safety Standard for Architectural Glazing Materials and ANSI Z97.1-2004. Both standards are applicable to safety glazing materials used in architectural applications. This bulletin makes no attempt to summarize all pertinent provisions of the two standards, only their significant differences.
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Emergency Egress Through Laminated Glazing Materials (GANA LD 02-0704)
Building codes often require, and/or modern architectural designs specify, glazing materials that provide enhanced performance levels of security and safety. These performance properties include: resistance to ballistics, blast, hurricane/cyclic wind pressures and physical attack. Glazing applications may also specify such properties as sound reduction, fade resistance, and solar and thermal control. Because laminated glazing materials are able to meet such requirements and design criteria, they are finding application in a broader range of installations than ever before. The use of laminated glazing in residential and commercial installations has led to inquiries by design professionals and specifiers regarding the reaction of public safety officials to these products. This document is intended to inform building owners, design professionals, and specifiers about emergency ingress and egress considerations when using these products.
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Flat Glass Industry Standards (GANA 02-0409)
This document provides a list of the current editions, as of April 2, 2009, of industry consensus and federal flat glass standards frequently specified and referenced for use in residential and commercial construction applications in the United States
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Guide to the Glass and Glazing Requirements of the Model Building Codes, 5th Edition (NGA)
This guide will assist glaziers and glass installers in complying with all appropriate glazing requirements of the Model Building Codes. Includes chapters on Building Codes, Safety Glazing, Fire-Rated Glazing, Structural Requirements, Energy Conservation Codes, Green Construction, Accessibility, Repair and Alteration Work, and Compliance and Responsibility.
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Glass Design Program for Canada (IGMA)
The IGMAC Glass Design Software Program assists manufacturers, architects and engineers to calculate structural design of glass based on CGSB 12.20 and in compliance with the 2005 National Building Code of Canada.
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Glass Floors and Stairs (GANA LD 06-1107)
Glass floors and stair treads are found in both residential and commercial settings, and are growing in popularity because of their aesthetic appeal as well as for the daylighting benefits they bring to a space. While there are manufacturers that provide engineered and tested flooring systems, most glass floor and stair tread projects require the input of a structural engineer to provide load calculations and an experienced installer to provide glazing details. Because pedestrian safety is a critical objective, the glazing in-fill must provide an acceptable level of slip resistance. If there is a possibility for inappropriate lines of sight, the glass will require greater opacity or translucency to address a concern for modesty. This document discusses several considerations for using glass in flooring and stair applications.
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Glazing Manual (50th Anniversary Edition) (GANA)
The GANA Glazing Manual is recognized as the definitive source in the glass and glazing field. This manual includes complete information about primary and fabricated glass products, quality standards, design considerations, general and specific glazing guidelines and glazing in hazardous locations. Formerly published by the Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA), this manual is frequently referred to as the “industry bible.”
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Guidelines for IG Manufacturers; Studies of Sealant Compatibility (IGMA TB-2403-91)
These guidelines address the determination of the compatibility of glazing sealants and glazing materials with the IG unit edge seal for a particular building project specification and test methods used.
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Heat-Treated Glass Surfaces Are Different (GANA TD 02-0402)
As the use of glass increased over recent years, issues of strength, safety and thermal performance became increasingly important design considerations. The availability of tinted and coated glasses had a dramatic impact on glass use in building projects. The vastly expanded aesthetic options, combined with the improved energy conserving and comfort capabilities of tinted and coated glasses allowed architects to use more glass, as well as larger sizes in their designs. A consequence of this trend was a corresponding increase in the use of tempered and heat-strengthened glass in order to meet both thermal and windload design requirements. The demand for tempered glass further increased with the passing of safety glazing legislation in 1977, which mandated its use in certain locations. This document discusses why industry cleaning procedures must be followed to avoid glass damage.
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Hurricane Product Substitution (GANA LD 07-0809)
Thousands of impact resistant windows, doors, and skylights have been tested and certified since Hurricane Andrew ravaged South Florida in 1992, causing billions in property damage. As a consequence of the damage inflicted by Hurricane Andrew, more stringent standards for window systems were adopted. The requirements put into place the following year called for testing of window and door systems and changes to any component–including framing materials, glazing, sealants, weather stripping, hardware and anchors typically necessitated retesting and recertification. This document discusses the many considerations for hurricane product substitution.
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Laminated Glazing Reference Manual (2009 Edition) (GANA)
The GANA Laminated Glazing Reference Manual presents useful information, technical and performance data and the installation guidelines for laminated glass products. The 2009 edition includes the latest information on laminating interlayers, as well as in-depth discussions of the applications of laminated architectural glass including: safety, solar control, ultraviolet radiation, sound control, security, sloped glazing & skylights, wind storms & hurricane resistance, and earthquake resistance. Updates on laminated glass strength, cutting, handling and installation are highlighted. This edition also features the up-to-date listing of standards applying to laminated glass.
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Marking and Labeling of Architectural Laminated Glass (GANA LD 05-1006)
Modern architectural designs are requiring the installation of glazing materials that are capable of performing in multi-peril situations. These applications typically require levels of protection well beyond those of basic safety glazing. As such there has been unprecedented advancement in the types, configurations and complexities of glazing materials currently utilized in architectural applications. Because of the tremendous increase in the recognized performance of glass and other glazing, the concern over properly identified components of a fenestration assembly has also increased. Currently, there are several industry guidelines that assist the frame manufacturer in the proper labeling of framing systems, but very little guidance is available for the glazing that is placed inside the frame, referenced as the “infill”. The purpose of this informational bulletin is to provide guidance and hopefully some clarity to the various permanent marks or manufacturers designations currently being applied and/or required for the glazing infill of a fenestration assembly.
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North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for windows, doors, and skylights (AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440-11)
This is the third edition of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440; it supersedes the previous editions, published in 2008 under the same title and published in 2005 under the title Standard/Specification for windows, doors, and unit skylights. It is jointly published by the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA), the Window & Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA), and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA).

The following significant changes have been made:
(a) a thorough restructuring of this Standard/Specification, with separate sections for products and materials and components;
(b) addition of requirements on lead content for hardware;
(c) reorganized mullion provisions, with new ratings and designations;
(d) addition of parallel opening windows;
(e) expansion of tubular daylighting device (TDD) products to include closed ceiling and open ceiling options;
(f) updated tables; and
(g) addition of criteria for secondary storm products (SSPs) throughout this Standard/Specification
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North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for windows, doors, and skylights (AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440-08)
This is the second edition of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, NAFS – North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for windows, doors, and skylights. It supersedes the previous edition, published in 2005. From the previous edition of this standard/specification, significant changes have been made. The number of window and door performance classes was reduced from five to four by elimination of C and HC and the addition of a new class identified as CW. An option was added whereby a product is permitted to enter Performance Class R by testing of a specimen of an alternative minimum test size smaller than the gateway test size, provided that the minimum performance grade is correspondingly increased. Tubular daylighting devices (TDDs) were added, as well as other noteworthy edits.
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North American Fenestration Standard – Standard/Specification for Windows, Doors, and Unit Skylights (AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440-05 )
This specification is the first edition of a jointly published fenestration standard by US and Canadian Associations. This standard is intended to replace previous versions of AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S.2-97, AAMA/WDMA 101/I.S.2/NAFS-02 and CSA A440. This standard identifies the requirements for windows, glass doors, skylights and for the first time side-hinged exterior doors. Included (when applicable) are performance requirements for structural integrity, water resistance, air leakage and forced entry. Window and door products are still divided into five classes for rating purposes, while maintaining material neutrality.
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North American Fenestration Standard – Voluntary Performance Specification for Windows, Skylights and Doors (AAMA/WDMA 101/I.S.2/NAFS-02)
This specification encompasses performance requirements for windows, doors and skylights including structural integrity, resistance to water penetration, air leakage and forced entry. Durability requirements include component testing and performance and life cycle testing. Products are divided into five classes for rating purposes. Because the specification is material neutral, products made from any framing material are included in this specification. The new specification encompasses material from 101/I.S.2, CSA A440 and other performance standards for fenestration products and is intended to be a companion to 101/I.S.2 and the eventual replacement of that standard.
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North American Fenestration Standard – Voluntary Specifications for Aluminum, PVC and Wood Windows and Glass Doors (ANSI/AAMA/WDMA 101/I.S.2-97)
This standard provides a material-neutral, performance-oriented point of view with a strong basis for the principle that the structural integrity of a window as a building component is fundamental to any concept of product quality. It is divided into General Requirements, Specific Performance Requirements, Materials, Components and Optional Performance. This standard defines requirements for 5 classes of windows and glass doors: Residential, Light Commercial, Commercial, Heavy Commercial and Architectural. Given its performance (vs. prescriptive) orientation and material neutrality, this standard offers a true basis for comparing the key characteristics and quality attributes of window and door products.
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North American Glazing Guidelines for Sealed Insulating Glass Units for Commercial and Residential Use (IGMA TM-3000-90(04))
These advisory guidelines address the importance of good glazing practices and are intended for use by those who design, specify, manufacturer and install insulating glass units. These guidelines address glass types, framing, glazing clearances, setting blocks, spacer shims, glazing materials, glazing systems, receiving, storage & handling, glass protection & cleaning for both commercial and residential applications.
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Performance Criteria for Glazing Subjected to Seismic Events (GANA PGC 03-0809)
Shaking and twisting buildings, uplifting of the earth, people screaming, running and trying to avoid falling debris. This can be a typical scene during a damaging earthquake. Significant research has been done on the causes of earthquakes; less work has been done on how to keep buildings intact and functioning during these events. Engineers and architects must follow code requirements for the structural performance of buildings in seismic zones. This glass information bulletin focuses on the use of glass and glazing as non-structural components installed in buildings in seismic-prone areas.
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Recommended Voluntary In-Plant Test Methods and Performance Criteria of Desiccants for Sealed Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-2100-78(81))
These advisory guidelines address the importance of good glazing practices and are intended for use by those who design, specify, manufacturer and install insulating glass units. These guidelines address glass types, framing, glazing clearances, setting blocks, spacer shims, glazing materials, glazing systems, receiving, storage & handling, glass protection & cleaning for both commercial and residential applications.
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Sealant Manual (2008 Edition) (GANA)
The new GANA Sealant Manual provides guidelines for the selection and application of sealants used in exterior and interior glass and glazing installations. Manual sections include causes of sealant failures, structural glazing and glazing accessories.
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Sealant Manufacturers Minimum Sealant Dimensions and Placement Survey (IGMA TB-1201-89(05))
This technical bulletin includes a chart of dual seal, hot melt extruded, single seal and Intercept™ spacers for silicone, hot melt, polysulfide, polyurethane and curing hot melt. This document includes depth of primary & secondary sealant, beneath spacer, total siteline, shoulder, thickness and thickness before press.
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Sloped Glazing Guidelines (AAMA TIR-A7)
These guidelines cover general provisions for design factors, breakage, condensation, loadings, deflection, inspection and testing for skylights and space enclosures titled more than 15 degrees from the vertical plane.
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Sound Control for Fenestration Products (AAMA TIR-A1)
This document was prepared for anyone who requires information on what sound is, how it is transmitted, how it is measured and how its transmission can be controlled. Although technical in nature, this document is organized to be useful to anyone from the window designer who is trying to meet an architect’s sound control specification to a window salesman who just wants to help a customer understand how sound travels and what can be done to “cut down on the noise”. Furthermore, this document clarifies and differentiate between the two methods of product classification, STC (Sound Transmission Class) and OITC (Outdoor-Indoor Transmission Class) and their appropriate use.
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Test Methods of Insulating Glass Sealants (IGMA TM-2400-76(90))
This manual covers types of sealants, application test methods for sealant type, tables of test conditions to standardize temperature, mixing and volume conditions and specific tests.
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The Importance of Fabrication Prior to Heat-Treatment (GANA TD 04-1207)
Glass applications frequently require a variety of glass edge and/or surface fabrication. Some common fabrication processes include edge seaming, grinding, and polishing; hole drilling and notch cutting; and surface grooving, sand-blasting, and etching. GANA recommends against glass fabrication after heattreatment because it may weaken the glass and/or cause it to break. This document discusses why.
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Voluntary Guidelines for the Identification of Visual Obstructions in the Airspace of Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-3100-09)
These advisory guidelines may assist in the determination of unintended visual obstructions in the insulating glass unit airspace.
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Voluntary Specification for Skylights(AAMA/WDMA 1600/I.S.7)
Specifications include material and finish requirements as well as performance requirements for air infiltration, water resistance and structural loading. Skylights covered are residential and commercial factory glazed assemblies shipped complete for installation in a roof opening. Formatted to be consistent with ANSI/AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S.2-97.
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Voluntary Test Methods & Voluntary performance Quality Assurance Criteria for Spacers for Sealed Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-2000-76(82))
This manual includes information of test specimens, recommended voluntary test and performance quality assurance criteria for hollow shaped spacers to accept edge sealant to minimize air leakage between the spacer and the glass.
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Voluntary Test Methods & Voluntary Performance Quality Assurance Criteria for Two Component Polysulfide Sealants Used in Manufacturing Sealed Insulating Glass Units (IGMA TM-2301-85)
This manual includes information of test specimens, recommended voluntary test and performance quality assurance criteria with typical values based on laboratory test results, and various test methods.
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Voluntary Test Methods for Chemical Effects of Glazing Compounds on Elastomeric Edge Seals (IGMA TR-1000-75(91))
This test method covers the procedure for an oven-type test of sample 6” X 6” insulating glass units exposed to glazing compounds or other materials which could contact units on the unbranded elastomeric edge seal.
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White Paper on the Relevance of Decorative Glass Products to the U. S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (GANA)
The intent of this White Paper is to address areas of the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED®) Rating System that are relevant to the use of Decorative Glass. This document describes the ways in which decorative glass products are consistent with the intent of the LEED® Rating System. Although individual building products do not in themselves constitute conformance to the LEED® criteria, depending on the amount and type of glass used in a project, this versatile material has great potential to help achieve LEED® credits. The information contained in this paper has been developed using general or typical information on various decorative glass products. More specific information and performance data can be obtained through individual manufacturers that produce decorative glass products.
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Window Glazing for Durability (Residential) (IGMA)
This CD video addresses window glazing for residential applications.
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